These are the techniques and applications of molecular identification. Analytical chemistry lecture notes, laboratory exercises, organizations, journals, software, and additional resources are provided. Information is available for calorimetry, crystallography, electrophoresis, chromatography, and spectroscopy.
Introduction to Qualitative Analys
Identifying Anions and Cations
Qualitative analysis is used to separate and detect cations and anions in a sample substance. In an educational setting, it is generally true that the concentrations of the ions to be identified are all approximately 0.01 M in an aqueous solution. The 'semimicro' level of qualitative analysis employs methods used to detect 1-2 mg of an ion in 5 mL of solution.
First, ions are removed in groups from the initial aqueous solution. After each group has been separated, then testing is conducted for the individual ions in each group. Here is a common grouping of cations:
Group I: Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+
Precipitated in 1 M HCl
Group II: Bi3+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, (Pb2+), Sb3+ and Sb5+, Sn2+ and Sn4+
Precipitated in 0.1 M H2S solution at pH 0.5
Group III: Al3+, (Cd2+), Co2+, Cr3+, Fe2+ and Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+
Precipitated in 0.1 M H2S solution at pH 9
Group IV: Ba2+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+
Ba2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ are precipitated in 0.2 M (NH4)2CO3 solution at pH 10; the other ions are soluble
Many reagents are used in qualitative analysis, but only a few are involved in nearly every group procedure. The four most commonly used reagents are 6M HCl, 6M HNO3, 6M NaOH, 6M NH3. Understanding the uses of the reagents is helpful when planning an analysis.