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Thursday, October 16, 2014

Empirical Formula

Empirical Formula an be calculated by the following steps.
•Assume a definite starting quantity of the compound, if not given and express the mass of each element in grams.
•Convert the grams of each element into moles using each elements molar mass. This conversion gives the number of moles of atoms of each element in the quantity assumed in previous step.
•Divide each value obtained in previous step by the smallest values. If the numbers obtained are whole numbers, use them as subscripts and write the empirical formula.
•Multiply the values obtained in the previous step by the smallest number that will convert them to whole numbers. Use these whole numbers as the subscripts in the empirical formula.

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Friday, October 10, 2014

Acid and base information

Acidic,Basic and Neutral Substances

Acidic substances
Materials that contain an acid in them are called acidic substances.
Acids are of 2 types-
•Mineral Acid
•Organic Acid
Mineral Acid
A mineral acid is an acid derived from on or more inorganic compounds.They are not Organic.
Examples are-Sulphuric Acid,Nitric Acid.

Organic Acid
They occur naturally in animal and plant materials
Ex: Tartaric Acid from Grapes,Lactic acid from milk.

Characteristics of Acidic Substances are-
•They have a sour taste and are corrosive
•They are soluble in water
Acids can also be either dilute or concentrated.
Acids with more amount of water are called dilute acids.Acids with less amount of water are called concentrated acids.
Acids can also be either strong or weak.
Strong acids are highly corrosive and can cause burns.Ex:Nitric,Sulphuric Acid
Weak acids are not so destructive.

Basic Substances
Substances that contain a base are called basic substances.
Examples are Sodium Hydroxide,Calcium Hydroxide

Bases have many properties-
•They are bitter to taste
•Solutions of bases have a soapy touch
•They may or may not be soluble in water.
Bases that are soluble in water are called Alkalis.
Ex:Potassium Hydroxide,Sodium Hydroxide.

Bases can also be strong or weak
Strong bases are corrosive and can burn skin
Examples:Sodium Hydroxide

Examples of weak bases are Copper Hydroxide,Zinc Hydroxide

Neutral Substances
Some substances are neither Acidic nor Basic.These are called Neutral Substance.
When an acid reacts with a base,Neutralization reaction takes place and a Neutral Salt is formed.Here is an example of a neutralization reaction.

In this reaction Hydrochloric Acid reacts with Sodium Hydroxide to from Sodium Chloride(Common Salt) and Water.

Titration of formula

Titration Formula

A titration can determine the volume of one solution required to react exactly with a known volume of another solution. Titration frequently involve the reaction other than acid-base reactions, such as redox reactions and reactions involving precipitations.
"A titration can determine the volume of one solution required to react exactly with a known volume of another solution."
The equation for Titration Formula is expressed as
Titration Formula
•N = normality of titrant
•V = volume of titrant
•Eq.wt = equivalent weight of acid
•W = mass of sample
•1000 = factor relating mg to grams
However in common the Titration Formula is written as
Titration Formula
•N = normality of titrant
•V1 = volume of titrant
•Eq.wt = equivalent weight of predominant acid
•V2 = volume of sample

Tuesday, October 7, 2014


What  is glucose? What its formula?
 Glucose is something which is very sweet and gives us instant energy.Its just like the process of photosynthesis.Glucose and sugar have a big difference.Glucos
e is hydrated and more sweeter than sugar.It gives us instant energy cause it contains extr,a water.An example of glucose could be anything which contains sugar.Example :Glucond -d

formula for glucose is C6H12O6.
Glucose is the human bodies key source of energy because it is required for respiration. Through digestion, glucose is broken down into components the body can use to generate ATP from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. ATP is the molecular unit of currency for a cell.

Challenging Questions

Question 1
Balance the following equation:
__ KOH + __ H3PO4 → __ K3PO4 + __ H2O
Question 2
Balance the following equation:
__ KNO3 + __ H2CO3 → __ K2CO3 + __ HNO3
Question 3
Balance the following equation:
__ Na3PO4 + __ HCl → __ NaCl + __ H3PO4
Question 4
Balance the following equation:
__ TiCl4 + __ H2O + __ TiO2 + __ HCl
Question 5
Balance the following equation:
__ C2H6O + __ O2 → __ CO2 + __ H2O
Question 6
Balance the following equation:
__ Fe + __ HC2H3O2 → __ Fe(C2H3O2)3 + __ H2
Question 7
Balance the following equation:
__ NH3 + __ O2 → __ NO + __ H2O

Question 8Question 9
Balance the following equation:
__ B2Br6 + __ HNO3 → __ B(NO3)3 + __ HBr
Balance the following equation:
__ NH4OH + __ Kal(SO4)2·12H2O → __ Al(OH)3 + __ (NH4)2SO4 + __ KOH + __ H2O

1. 1 SnO2 + 2 H2 → 1 Sn + 2 H2O
2. 3 KOH + 1 H3PO4 → 1 K3PO4 + 3 H2O
3. 2 KNO3 + 1 H2CO3 → 1 K2CO3 + 2 HNO3
4. 1 Na3PO4 + 3 HCl → 3 NaCl + 1 H3PO4
5. 1 TiCl4 + 2 H2O + 1 TiO2 + 4 HCl
6. 1 C2H6O + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O
7. 2 Fe + 6 HC2H3O2 → 2 Fe(C2H3O2)3 + 3 H2
8. 4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
9. 1 B2Br6 + 6 HNO3 → 2 B(NO3)3 + 6 HBr
10. 4 NH4OH + 1 Kal(SO4)2·12H2O → 1 Al(OH)3 + 2 (NH4)2SO4 + 1 KOH + 12 H2O

Information for chemistry students

 Like chemistry but don’t know what jobs you can do if you study it further? Explore our future careers pages.
 Confused by the range of chemistry qualifications on offer? Not sure if you want to go to university or get on the job training? Learn more about your study options.
 There are many reasons why you might want to study chemistry or a related subject further:
 It helps you to be analytical and logical – these skills are useful for many careers, not just in science
It helps in lots of different subjects, can apply to everything, great foundation
It is a core subject that takes you wherever you want to go in science
Compulsory for medicine and other degrees
It is an impressive degree to get
It can lead to so many careers
You just love chemistry!
 Whatever the reason you have for thinking about studying chemistry further, explore the website to help you learn more about the opportunities it can offer you.

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Make copper sulfate

Copper sulfate crystals are among the most beautiful crystals you can grow, but you might not have access to a chemistry lab or want to order the copper sulfate from a chemical supply company. That's okay, because you can make copper sulfate yourself using readily-available materials.
Materials for Making Copper Sulfate
There are actually a few different ways you can make copper sulfate yourself. This method relies on a little electrochemistry to get the job done. You will need:

Different between baking soda & soda powder

Answer: Both baking soda and baking powder are leavening agents, which means they are added to baked goods before cooking to produce carbon dioxide and cause them to 'rise'. Baking powder contains baking soda, but the two substances are used under different conditions.
Baking Soda
Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with moisture and an acidic ingredient (e.g., yogurt, chocolate, buttermilk, honey), the resulting chemical reaction produces bubbles of carbon dioxide that expand under oven temperatures, causing baked goods to rise. The reaction begins immediately upon mixing the ingredients, so you need to bake recipes which call for baking soda immediately, or else they will fall flat!

Monday, September 22, 2014

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Patriotic Colored Liquid Layers - Red, White & Blue Density Column

There's just something cool about layering colored liquids! This particular density column shows off the red, white and blue colors, plus (of course) you can light it on fire. I've got instructions for patriotic-colored liquid layers using common household materials, or you can make a layered mixed drink for a holiday celebration. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic versions are simple to make!



Red, White and Blue Layered Mixed Drinks

  • Red: food coloring with 151 rum or red fruit juice or grenadine
  • White: Irish cream or half-and-half or milk
  • Blue: food coloring with simple syrup or blue curacao

Health Risk from Butter-Flavored Popcorn

Did you know you can get a condition called "popcorn lung" from breathing the artificial butter flavoring from microwave popcorn? The artificial butter flavoring is a naturally-occurring chemical called diacetyl. Diacetyl causes no problems in the butter, milk, cheese, beer, and wine where it's found, but when vaporized it can cause damage to the bronchioles in the lungs, eventually deteriorating them into the serious irreversible condition called bronchiolitis obliterans. If you nuke a bag of popcorn every now and then, it's not a health concern for you, but workers in the factories producing the butter-flavored popcorn are at risk for lung damage, as are consumers who pop a couple of bags of corn daily. I would guess theater concession stand employees would also fall into this category.

This Day in Science History - May 21 - EKG and EEG

May 21st was the birthday of two men who invented two electric diagnostic devices that are often confused with each other. The EEG, or electroencephalogram device, was invented by German psychologist Hans Berger to record electrical signals from the brain. The ECG or EKG, otherwise known as electrocardiogram was invented by Dutch physician Willem Einthoven to measure the electrical current given off by heart beats.

Perhaps nobody mixes these two devices up, but I sometimes do. All you have to remember: EEG - brain waves, ECG or EKG - heart beats.

Cool Liquid Nitrogen Activities

Liquid nitrogen is literally cool! If you get hold of some, I expect you to be creative coming up with things to do with it. However, what if you're stumped for ideas? I'm planning to get some liquid nitrogen and want to make sure I don't miss any cool projects. Therefore, I've compiled a list of activities you can perform using liquid nitrogen, plus there is a section where you can read ideas for liquid nitrogen projects or add your own favorite project. Of course, you're welcome to post an idea right here.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

How to promote your work through LinkedIn

013 marked professional networking site LinkedIn’s ten year anniversary.  By the end of its first decade, the company netted 225 million members, with a growth rate of over two members per second. [1] Now with 277 million members, LinkedIn has the largest number of users of any online professional network in the world. [2] “LinkedIn is, far and away, the most advantageous social networking tool available to job seekers and business professionals today,” according to Forbes. [3] “I’m often asked, ‘How important is it for those already near the top of their careers to be utilizing resource tools such as LinkedIn?’ Most times, these questions come out of not fully understanding what you can do with a LinkedIn account and profile,” says career coach John Crant of [4]
So, how can you harness LinkedIn’s vast audience and  successfully showcase and disseminate your published content?
Utilize your strongest promotional tool on LinkedIn – your profile. Make your profile a positive tool in promoting the circulation of your published content:
  1. Tell your entire story. Assess potential omissions in your profile – have you listed all of your occupational experiences?  Education? Awards? Prior accomplishments may seem small, ancient, or downright irrelevant, until you shift your perspective. LinkedIn users visiting your profile probably don’t know the narrative of your career. A lapse in your profile is a missed demonstration of growth and of ambition. An earlier achievement may not reflect your current work but it will enrich your profile ‘story.’ By establishing the scope of your achievements, you grow common interests, expand your circles, and increase access to you and your published content.

organic chemists

How organic chemists tweak existing molecules and build new ones from scratch
Natural products—molecules originally isolated from bacteria, fungi, plants, and other sources—often have medicinal values that can be enhanced by careful

This Day in Science History - May 13 - Ronald Ross

Malaria has been a problem for people for all of history. It usually causes symptoms a lot like flu, fevers, chills and nausea--even causing death. The term malaria or mal aria means "bad air". Medieval doctors thought there was something in the air that causes the disease.

On May 13, 1857, Ronald Ross was born. Ross was an Anglo-Indian physician who discovered malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium. This parasite would be spread by mosquito bites. A female mosquito would bite an infected animal or person, get infected itself, and infect everyone it bit afterwords. Describing the life-cycle of Plasmodium would earn Ross the 1902 Nobel Prize in Medicine.

1975 - Marguerite Catherine Perey died.

Perey was a French physicist who discovered the element francium. She found the elusive element while investigating lanthanum samples. Francium is produced by the alpha disintegration of actinium and has a very short half-life of only 22 minutes.

Make Plastic Sulfur

Did you know that you can make a polymer from an element? It's really easy to turn ordinary yellow sulfur into plastic sulfur! As an added bonus, you'll get to experience a couple other interesting properties of sulfur. The yellow solid melts into a blood-red liquid. When it is heated, it may ignite with a blue flame... Make plastic sulfur


  • 50 g sulfur [Compare Prices]
  • test tube (25 mm x 200 mm)
  • burner
  • test tube clamp
  • beaker of water (500 mL or so)
  • tongs


You'll melt the sulfur, which changes from a yellow powder into a blood-red liquid. When the molten sulfur is poured into the beaker of water, it forms a rubbery mass, which remains in polymer form for a variable length of time, but eventually crystallizes into a brittle form.
  1. Fill the test tube with pure sulfur powder or pieces until it is within a couple of centimeters of the top of the tube.
  2. Using a test tube clamp to hold the tube, place the tube in a burner flame to melt the sulfur. The yellow sulfur will turn into a red liquid as it melts. The sulfur may ignite in the flame. This is fine. If ignition occurs, expect a blue flame at the mouth of the test tube.
  3. Pour the molten sulfur into a beaker of water. If the sulfur is burning, you'll get a spectacular burning stream from the tube into the water! The sulfur forms a golden-brown "string" as it hits the water.
  4. You can use tongs to remove the mass of polymer sulfur from the water and examine it. This rubbery form will last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours before reverting to the usual yellow brittle rhomic crystalline form.

Do Bubbles Pop from the Top or the Bottom

 A soap bubble consists of a thin layer of water trapped between two layers of soap molecules. The liquid layer is thin, but it is still affected by gravity, so as a bubble floats, the water is drawn to its base. The film at the top of the bubble thins, even as evaporation removes liquid from the entire surface, until finally the bubble pops -- from the top. If you freeze bubbles with dry ice, you can pick a bubble up to examine it more closely to verify this for yourself. Another fun way to view bubbles is to color them.

This Day in Science History - May 12 - Dorothy Hodgkin

May 12th is Dorothy Hodgkin's birthday. Hodgkin was the British chemist who developed three dimensional x-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography involved growing a crystal of the sample you wished to investigate, beaming x-rays through this sample, and recording the diffraction pattern made by the atoms of the crystal. The pattern would reveal the structure of the crystal's atoms in two dimensions. Hodgkin aimed her x-rays through crystals at multiple angles and compared the differences in diffraction patterns to find the three dimensional structure. This technique showed atom positions, length of chemical bonds and the relationships between individual molecules in the crystals. She found the structures of penicillin and insulin, but the structure of vitamin B12 would earn her the 1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

How to Make Colored Sparklers

Sparklers are small handheld fireworks that give off fiery sparks rather than explode. Sparklers consist of a thin metal or wooden stick coated with a simple pyrotechnic mixture. Colored sparklers really are as easy to make as regular sparklers. The difference lies in the oxidizer that is used. You're basically replicating a flame test, except in reverse since you know the colors to expect from various metal ions. Potassium nitrate or saltpeter will impart a violet color. Barium nitrate burns green. Strontium nitrate burns red. Aside from ordering from a chemical supply store, you can find strontium nitrate in emergency flares and potassium nitrate at some garden supply stores (or you can make it yourself). You can mix in other metal salts from the flame test or colored fire list, but only go for one color. If you try to mix colors, you'll likely wind up with a basic golden sparkler. There are several recipes for colored sparklers. Here are some examples. Ingredients are listed in terms of parts by weight, so you can use milligrams or grams or ounces... whatever works for you.

Red Sparklers

  • 5 parts strontium nitrate
  • 1 part shellac
Dip iron wires or wooden sticks in the mixture and allow it to dry completely before use. Be sure to leave enough room on the stick so that you can hold the sparkler safely.

Monday, May 5, 2014

Forget the Cutting Edge – Embrace the Old-Tech Fut...

Forget the Cutting Edge – Embrace the Old-Tech Fut...:   By Josh Kearns Our society is pathologically enthralled with “the new.” As scientists and engineers, we’re inculcated starting from v...j

Pi-stacking better without the aromatics?

I-stacking better without the aromatics?: 08 July 2011 Scientists in the US have discovered that electrons confined to their double bonds can sometimes deliver stronger pi-stacking...

Saturday, May 3, 2014

How Mood Rings Work

One of the more popular beach accessories where I live is a mood toe ring. These are similar to the 1970s mood rings, except they are smooth bands of color instead of the classic rounded domes. Also, I've seen reddish tones in the newer rings that weren't available in the first rings. The original mood rings had a nasty habit of self-destructing if you got them wet, which I can verify isn't a problem with the modern rings.

Mood rings supposedly change color to show your emotions.

How a Baking Soda and Vinegar Volcano Works

The baking soda and vinegar volcano is a popular science project, but the science part of the project involves explaining how the reaction models a real volcano or explaining the science behind the reaction that produces the lava. In a nutshell, the reaction between baking soda and vinegar produces sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is trapped by detergent to form bubbly lava, which flows down the side of the model because carbon dioxide is more dense than air. However, sometimes you'll want to explain or write the chemical reactions that occur to produce the carbon dioxide. Here's a look at ways to write the reactions.

Glow in the Dark Geode

It's very easy to make a glow in the dark crystal geode. The 'rock' is a natural mineral (eggshell). You can use one of several common household chemicals to grow the crystals. The glow comes from paint, which you can get from a craft store.

Glow in the Dark Geode Materials
  • eggs
  • glow in the dark paint (I used GlowAway™ washable glowing paint)
  • very hot water (I used my coffee maker)
  • borax, alum, epsom salts, sugar, salt, or use another crystal recipe
  • food coloring (optional -- I used neon green coloring)
Prepare the Glowing 'Geode'
  1. There are two ways to crack your eggs. You can carefully crack the top of the egg by tapping it on a countertop. This will give you a deep geode with a smaller opening. Alternatively, you can crack the equator of the egg or carefully cut it with a knife. This will give you a geode you can open and put back together.
  2. Dump the egg or make scrambled eggs or whatever.
  3. Rinse out the inside of the eggshell with water. Peel away the interior membrane so you are left with only the shell.
  4. Allow the egg to air dry or carefully blot it dry with a paper towel or napkin.
  5. Use a paintbrush, swab, or your fingers to coat the inside of the eggshell with glowing paint.
  6. Set the painted egg aside while you mix the crystal-growing solution.
Make the Crystal Solution
  1. Pour hot water into a cup.
  2. Stir borax or other crystal salt into the water until it stops dissolving and you see some solid at the bottom of the cup.
  3. Add food coloring, if desired. Food coloring does not get incorporated into all crystals (e.g., borax crystals will be clear), but it will stain the egg shell behind the crystals, giving the geode some color.

This Day in Science History - May 2 - George Pimentel

May 2nd is George Pimentel's birthday. He was an American chemist who produced the first chemical laser. Chemical lasers rely on an exothermic reaction to pump the necessary energy to create the coherent light of a laser. They are some of the most powerful lasers in use today with outputs in the megawatt range. They are used as industrial cutting or drilling tools, research and military weapons. To give an idea of the power - energy per unit area - of these lasers, the laser in your DVD player, computer mouse, or laser pointer has a power rating in the milliwatt range or 1/1000th of a watt. A megawatt laser is 1,000,000,000 or 1 billion times more powerful.

How Trick Candles Work

Trick birthday candles are the sort that mysteriously re-light themselves a few seconds after being blown out. If you put them on your birthday cake, especially if you are... how shall I put it... using lots of candles... then blowing out all of the candles at once can be a discouraging exercise.

Burning Driftwood - Pretty Fire, Pretty Toxic

Did you know you can burn driftwood, especially from the ocean, to get a fire with blue and lavender flames? The colored fire comes from excitation of the metal salts that have soaked into the wood. While the flames are pretty, the smoke given off of the fire is toxic. Specifically, driftwood releases a lot of dioxin from combustion of salt-soaked wood. Dioxins are carginogenic, so burning driftwood from beaches is not recommended. Some coastal communities have considered burn bans on driftwood to reduce the levels of pollution from the smoke. All smoke contains particulates which can cause health problems when the smoke is inhaled, but you may have been unaware of the additional issue with burning driftwood.

Friday, May 2, 2014

mr-chemist: Claisen Condensation

mr-chemist: Claisen Condensation: The Claisen condensation (different from  Claisen rearrangement) is a C-C bond forming reaction that occurs between two esters or one ester...

Acyloin Condensationm

Acyloin Condensation: Acyloin Condensation is a coupling reaction in which two carboxylic acid esters couple in the presence of metallic sodium under inert atmos...

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Wayward Black Bear Returned Home

Wayward Black Bear Returned Home: Credit: Boise runner, Alexander Ford, snapped Blackie on Aug 22.     After a short visit to the city of trees and the Fort Boise area, a...

Just So You Know

Just So You Know: Recently Gabriela Solano and Alvin Menezes have joined our HR team. Initially, they will be staffing our internal positions and then p...

Solvent Effects and SN2 and SN1 reactions: Nucleop...

Solvent Effects and SN2 and SN1 reactions: Nucleophilic Substitution
SN2 reactions and solvent effects
Polar aprotic solvents – solvents that do not have acidic proton such as DMSO, DMF, CH3CN, HMPA - accelerate the rate of SN2 reactions by solvating the cation thus making the nucleophile more available to react.
On the contrary, protic solvents such as alcohols or amines decrease the rate of SN2 reactions since they tend to solvate nucleophiles (Fig. 1). The partial positive charge that exists in the O-H hydrogens solvate the negative charge of the nucleophile (Nu:-).Solvated nucleophiles are held tightly and are unable to react with the electrophilic substrates – compounds that have leaving group.
Fig. 1: Partially positively charged hydrogens from polar O-H bonds solvate partially negative charge of the nucleophile. Solvated nucleophiles – as the one shown above – are unable to react with electrophilic substrates.
The effect of solvents on the rate of SN2 nucleophilic substitution reactions is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2: Solvents and SN2 reactions rates.
The same electrophile - especially compounds having a leaving group in a secondary carbon – can react under SN2 or SN1 conditions by simply changing the solvent and the nucleophile. Under SN2 conditions and when a chiral carbon exists an inversion is observed in the product while under SN1 conditions a racemic mixture is produced (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3: The secondary substrate shown above reacts with CN-- a strong nucleophile - in a polar aprotic solvent acetone underSN2 conditions giving an inverted product at the secondary carbon. The same substrate reacts with OH-- a weak nucleophile – in a polar protic solvent like methanol under SN1 conditions giving a racemic mixture.
SN1 reactions and solvent effects
SN1 reactionsproceed more rapidly with more stablecarbocations, therefore the rate of reactivity is correlated to carbocation stability.Polar protic solvents, such as water and alcohols, organic acids and inorganic acids (H2SO4, H3PO4), stabilize the transition state by solvating the carbocation intermediate and therefore increase the reaction rate even more.
In general, polar protic solvents are able to solvate both cations and anions through hydrogen bonds. For example they dissolve salts such as NaBr by hydrogen bonding to the anion Br-and electron donation to the cation Na+.

Solvent Effects and SN2 and SN1 reactions: Nucleop...

Solvent Effects and SN2 and SN1 reactions: Nucleop...: S N 2 reactions and solvent effects Polar aprotic solvents – solvents that do not have acidic proton such as DMSO, DMF, CH 3...

Chemistry in our life: Loudspeakers in your window

Chemistry in our life: Loudspeakers in your window: 08 July 2011 Korean scientists have used graphene sheets to make a transparent and lightweight loudspeaker which, they say, can be attache...
This lesson will introduce you the student to basic chemistry principles. An understanding of this basic information will allow you to learn the more advanced topics in your course lectures.
This lesson focuses on a number of areas related to basic Chemistry. You should review each page in order as they build upon one another. Many of these topics will be review. Others may be new to you. Either way you will learn the fundamentals of chemistry needed in this course.
Atoms are the basic unit of chemistry. They consist of 3 smaller things:
*.Protons- these are positively charged (+)
*.Electrons- these are negatively charged (-)
*.Neutrons- these have no charge
These 3 smaller particles are arranged in a particular way. In the center is theNucleuswhere you find the positive Protons and neutral Neutrons.
In orbit around the nucleus are the Electrons. These are found in a series of orbits (depending on the atom) with differing numbers of electrons as seen below.
Interaction of Atoms
It's the electrons in orbit around the nucleus that allow one atom to interact with other atoms so they can be linked together.
For example, H2O consists of an Oxygen atom linked to 2 Hydrogen atoms. The linkage or interaction between the electrons of the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms is called a Chemical Bond. More on these later.
Atoms in the Human Body
The human body is made up of a couple dollars worth of chemicals.
The 12 most useful atoms for you to know about are listed below:
Sometimes atoms gain or lose electrons. The atom then loses or gains a "negative" charge. These atoms are then called ions.
*.Positive Ion- Occurs when an atomloses an electron(negative charge) it has more protons than electrons.
*.Negative Ion- Occurs when an atomgains an electron(negative charge) it will have more electrons than protons.
The following image shows Nalosingan electron and Clgainingan electron
*.Thus the Na becomes Na+
*.The Cl becomes Cl-
Here are some examples of common ions:

Chemistry in our life: Pi-stacking better without the aromatics?

Chemistry in our life: Pi-stacking better without the aromatics?: 08 July 2011 Scientists in the US have discovered that electrons confined to their double bonds can sometimes deliver stronger pi-stacking...

Online Islamic Books Library: Zina (Adultery) | Solution In Islam

Online Islamic Books Library: Zina (Adultery) | Solution In Islam: Zina is an immoral act which is condemned by all the religious scriptures.This act is also disliked by all philosophers and intellectuals...

Monday, April 28, 2014

Analytics Blog: New: AdWords Reports for App download campaigns

Analytics Blog: New: AdWords Reports for App download campaigns: Today we’re happy to announce a deeper integration between AdWords and Google Analytics for Mobile Apps that will help advertisers make fa...

Analytics Blog: New tools to grow your mobile app business

Analytics Blog: New tools to grow your mobile app business: Today at the Game Developers Conference in San Francisco we will be announcing two key launches powered by Google Analytics and Google Ta...

Thursday, April 24, 2014

PRETTY LITTLE LIARS BOOM: Review 3x18 - Dead To Me

PRETTY LITTLE LIARS BOOM: Review 3x18 - Dead To Me: Parece que foi ontem que todos nós estávamos desesperados de ansiedade para que a fase 3B começasse logo. Pois a fase 3B começou e já está ...

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Zinc Facts

Chemical & Physical Properties


Atomic Number: 30
Symbol: Zn
Atomic Weight: 65.39
Discovery: known since prehistoric time
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10
Word Origin: German zinke: of obscure origin, probably German for tine. Zinc metal crystals are sharp and pointed. It could also be attributed to the German word 'zin' meaning tin.
Isotopes: There are 30 known isotopes of zinc ranging from Zn-54 to Zn-83 . Zinc has five stable isotopes: Zn-64 (48.63%), Zn-66 (27.90%), Zn-67 (4.10%), Zn-68 (18.75%) and Zn-70 (0.6%).
Properties: Zinc has a melting point of 419.58°C, boiling point of 907°C, specific gravity of 7.133 (25°C), with a valence of 2. Zinc is a lustous blue-white metal. It is brittle at low temperatures, but becomes malleable at 100-150°C. It is a fair electrical conductor. Zinc burns in air at high red heat, evolving white clouds of zinc oxide.
Uses: Zinc is used to form numerous alloys, including brass, bronze, nickel silver, soft solder, Geman silver, spring brass, and aluminum solder. Zinc is used to make die castings for use in the electrical, automotive, and hardware industries. The alloy Prestal, consisting of 78% zinc and 22% aluminum, is nearly as strong as steel yet exhibits superplasticity. Zinc is used to galvanize other metals to prevent corrosion. Zinc oxide is used in paints, rubbers, cosmetics, plastics, inks, soap, batteries, pharmaceuticals, and many other products. Other zinc compounds are also widely used, such as zinc sulfide (luminous dials and fluorescent lights) and ZrZn2 (ferromagnetic materials). Zinc is an essential element for humans and other animal nutrition. Zinc-deficient animals require 50% more food to gain the same weight as animals with sufficient zinc. Zinc metal is not considered toxic, but if fresh zinc oxide is inhaled it can cause a disorder referred to as zinc chills or oxide shakes.

Is It Safe to Reboil Water?

You may have heard that is is unhealthy to reboil water or even to boil it away when cooking. Unless your water is exceedingly pure, reboiling water drives off the gases dissolved in the water and evaporates away some of the water, concentrating minerals and contaminants. There are two safety concerns with reboiling water. The first is that reboiling water increases the chance you'll get burned. With the gas bubbles removed, reboiling water can cause it to superheat and suddenly splash out when disturbed. The other safety issue concerns the chemical composition of reboiled water.

Grow a Cup-o-Crystals

From my list of quick crystal projects, here's a favorite. This one takes a minute to set up, yielding a mass of needle-like crystals after about three hours in your refrigerator. All you need is a cup or small, narrow bowl, epsom salts, and water. Grow Crystals in a Cup...

Darvaza Gas Crater - Extremely Cool Fire Tourist Attraction

Have you heard of the Darvaza Gas Crater or The Burning Gate to Hell? It is a massive burning crater that resulted from a natural gas accident that occurred in either the 1950s or else 1971, depending on who tells the tale. The drilling rig fell into a natural cavern, which was set alight. It still burns today. I don't see myself planning a vacation to the Karakum desert in Turkmenistan anytime soon, but if I went there, I would be sure to check this out. Photos of the Darvaza Crater are stunning. There are also some YouTube videos of the so-called "Door to Hell" out there. Pretty cool, don't you think

chemistry learn center : Happy Earth Day!

chemistry learn center : Happy Earth Day!: Happy Earth Day! The purpose of the day is to inspire appreciation for the earth's environment and awareness of issues that threaten...

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

This Day in Science History - April 22 - Rita Levi-Montalcini

April 22ndis the birthday of Rita Levi-Montalcini. She was awarded half the 1986 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of nerve growth factors. Upon graduation in 1936 with a medical degree, she was denied an academic or professional position in her native Italy under Mussolini's anti-Jewish laws. Instead, she set up a home laboratory in her bedroom and began researching nerve growth in chicken embryos. The paper she wrote on chick embryos earned her an invitation to a research position at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri in 1947 where she stayed for the next 30 years. The Italian government recognized her by making her a member of the Italian Senate for life in 2001. She was a respected and active member of the Senate until her death in 2012 at the age of 103.

Happy Earth Day!

Happy Earth Day! The purpose of the day is to inspire appreciation for the earth's environment and awareness of issues that threaten it. With that in mind, here's a look at some environment-related chemistry. I selected features that focus on cool features of the environment, like snowflakes and changing leaves, as well as issues, such as the greenhouse effect and fluoridation of drinking water.

Go Green for Earth Week - Make Your Own Shampoo

One of the biggest reasons to make your own shampoo is to avoid unwanted, potentially toxic chemicals. Another reason you might want to make your own shampoo is so you can customize the formulation for your hair's needs and your preference for fragrance (or lack of fragrance). Here's a recipe for a gentle vegetable-based shampoo. It's similar to my earlier shampoo recipe except this one uses potassium hydroxide instead of lye, which produces a shampoo that lathers better and rinses more easily. Mix the shampoo in a well-ventilated room or outdoors and be sure to read all of the safety precautions on the ingredients. Readers have recommended triethanolamine or diethanolamine in place of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Choose the formulation that works best for you.
Shampoo Ingredients
  • 2 lb 10 oz olive oil
  • 1 lb 7 oz of solid-type vegetable shortening
  • 1 lb coconut oil
  • 14.4 oz potassium hydroxide
  • 2 pints water
  • 1-1/2 oz glycerine (glycerol)
  • 1/2 oz ethanol
  • 1-1/2 oz castor oil
  • essential oils (optional), such as peppermint, rosemary, lavender, for fragrance and therapeutic properties
Let's Make Shampoo!
  1. In a large pan, mix together the olive oil, shortening, and coconut oil.
  2. In a well-ventilated area, preferably wearing gloves and eye protection in case of accidents, mix the potassium hydroxide and water. Use a glass or enameled container. This is an exothermic reaction, so heat will be produced.

Why Do Clothes Wrinkle?

I think the only good thing about old permanent press fabrics is that they tended to disintegrate pretty quickly so you never had to wear them for long. They were itchy, smelly, and toxic, thanks to the presence of formaldehyde in the treatment that made them wrinkle-free (much like flame retardant clothing in those respects). Of course, modern wrinkle-free fabrics aren't nearly as heinous as their predecessors. Advances in polymer chemistry have led to significant improvements.

The key to both the cause of wrinkling and its solution lies in understanding chemical bonds. Wrinkles form when you break chemical bonds within fabric polymers and then reform them when the fabric is crumpled up. You can break bonds by heating fabric. Other polymers use hydrogen bonding, so getting those materials wet allows the hydrogen bonds in water to restructure the molecules. When you press clothes with a steam iron, you have both heat and water, so you can effectively remove wrinkles. Usually you can prevent them from forming in the first place, even with non-permanent press fabrics, by using a dryer with a cool down cycle and making sure the dryer runs long enough that your clothes are completely dry before the cycle stops.

420 and Marijuana

Today's date is 4-20, which means it's 420. What is 420? It's a sort of counterculture holiday which is associated with cannabis or marijuana. Wikipedia has a good overview of various 420 observances around the world. If you're interested in learning more about marijuana and its chemical properties and physiological effects, be sure to check out my Marijuana Facts page.

This Day in Science History - April 20 - Franz Achard

April 20th marks the passing of the man who first brought table sugar to the masses. Before Franz Achard came up with his refinement process, sugar was a luxury item available only to the wealthy. His process removed sucrose from common beets. This provided usable table sugar at such a low price where anyone could afford to keep sugar in their house.

Easy and Beautiful Glow Stick Lanterns

Glow sticks are pretty cool on their own, plus you can use them as the basis for other projects. For example, you can use the liquid inside glow sticks to make decorative lights or lanterns to use around your home or yard... wherever it is dark!

How to Make Glow in the Dark Ice

Glow in the dark ice is really easy to make. How did I do it? I opened up a bottle of tonic water, poured it into an ice cube tray, and stuck it in the freezer. Tonic water glows vivid bright blue under a black light. The glow is activated by other sources of ultraviolet light, such as fluorescent lights or sunlight, though the glow won't appear as bright in part because the room won't be as dark. If you want to duplicate the effect in the photo, you just need a black light somewhere in the room with the ice.

Glowing Ice Flavor Tips
Personally, I think tonic water tastes vile, so I have a couple of tips for improving the flavor of the ice cubes. The first tip is to dilute the tonic water. If you mix the tonic water with normal water your ice cubes will last longer (pure tonic water cubes melt fairly quickly) and won't taste as much like quinine (the ingredient responsible for the glow). Otherwise, you can cut it with lemonade or another sweet-sour drink that won't suffer from the bitter tang of the quinine. The second option is to put the ice into a drink where the flavor is desirable. The obvious choice would be to use the ice cubes in gin to make a gin and tonic. Non-alcoholic choices include fruit juice, Mountain Dew™, or Kool-Aid™. Don't worry about diminishing the glow from the ice. This photo is of tonic water ice and water.

Friday, March 14, 2014

This Day in Science History - March 15 - Josef Loschmidt

March 15th is Josef Loschmidt's birthday. Loschmidt was an Austrian chemist who is best known for his close estimation of the size of air molecules. His value was nearly twice the actual size, but the correct order of magnitude. He also is known for the Loschmidt constant which sets the number of particles in a given volume of an idea gas as a constant. This value of 2.687 x 1025 particles per cubic meter at STP is occasionally confused with Avogadro's number in textbooks.

What Is the Difference Between Smoke and Steam?

Can you tell by looking at this plume from this factory whether it is releasing smoke or steam? Both smoke and steam can appear as clouds of vapor. Here's a closer look at what steam and smoke are and the difference between them.


Steam is pure water vapor, produced by boiling water. Sometimes water is boiled with other liquids, so there are other vapors with the water. Ordinarily, steam is completely colorless. As steam cools and condenses it becomes visible as water vapor and can produce a white cloud. This cloud is just like a natural cloud in the sky. It is odorless and tasteless. Because the humidity is very high, the cloud may leave water droplets on solids that touch it.


Smoke consists of gases and soot. The gases typically include water vapor, but smoke differs from steam in that there are other gases, such carbon dioxide and sulfur oxides, plus there are small particles. The type of particles depend on the source of the smoke, but usually you can smell or taste either the soot or some of the gases from smoke. Smoke may be white, but more commonly it is colored by its particles.

How to Tell Smoke and Steam Apart

Color and odor are two ways to distinguish smoke and steam. Another way to tell smoke and steam apart is by how quickly they dissipate. Water vapor dissipates rapidly, particularly if the relative humidity is low. Smoke hangs in the air, since the ash or other small particles are suspended.

3D Frozen Bubble

I had some time to kill while waiting for the aurora borealis in Fairbanks, Alaska, so I got some bubble solution and went out into the subzero weather to blow bubbles. Here's a Lytro lightfield photo of a frozen bubble. If you look closely, you can see the front of the ice crystal growth.

If you want to make frozen bubbles with pretty crystal patterns, my recommendation is to find a cold, still day, blow bubbles, recapture the bubbles on the bubble wand, and set them down on a level surface to watch them freeze. You want the temperature to be below freezing, but not so cold that the bubbles freeze almost instantly

Why Ping Pong Balls Are Flammable

If you play ping pong or table tennis, you used to have to carry around several balls, since they would occasionally ignite or explode upon contact with the paddle. It's unlikely a modern ping pong ball would ignite during a game, but they remain extremely flammable. If you touch a flame to a ball, it burns from the point of contact evenly around to the other side, leaving only a delicate mesh, the strip of adhesive used to join the halves of the ball, and a fairly vile stench. Except for the smell, it's actually kind of cool! Some people think the balls are filled with flammable gas, while others think it has something to do with the plastic used to make the balls... Find out who is right

DIY Magnetic Silly Putty

Putty, specifically Silly Puttybut if you have putty, you only need one more ingredient to make DIY magnetic Silly Putty.
, is a cool toy that was originally marketed as an Easter novelty (which is how it came to be sold in eggs). The newest version of the toy is magnetic putty, which is a viscoelastic polymer, just like regular and glowing putty, plus it's magnetic. You can't make Silly Putty yourself unless you have some silicone oil and boric acid to produce polydimethylsiloxane

DIY Magnetic Silly Putty

You will need:
  • putty
  • magnetic iron oxide powder
  • strong magnet (recommend neodymium rare earth magnet)
  • paper face mask so you don't breathe in the iron oxide dust
  • disposable gloves because it's a messy project
You can find iron oxide powder online or at some craft stores, where it may be sold as a black pigment. This is basically ground magnetic hematite. There are other forms of iron oxide, too, which are not magnetic, so be sure to get the right kind! Test it with a magnet if you aren't sure you have what you need. If you are truly desperate, use rust, which is the everyday form of this chemical.

Do the Northern Lights or Aurora Make a Sound?

One interesting science mystery involves the aurora borealis or Northern Lights. Some people report hearing a sound when the auroral display is visible in the sky. Scientists have not detected a sound emanating from the aurora, at least within the range of human hearing, and any sound coming directly from the aurora would be delayed, yet the reports are too frequent and credible to be discounted. Right now, the thinking is the best way to determine the mechanism for the sound is to collect more reports of experiences. So, if you have heard the aurora, take a moment to share your story.

Friday, March 7, 2014

Five-Sided Ice Crystals

When you picture a snowflake, you probably envision a six-sided shape. Because of the angle of the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen in water, that geometry is greatly favored over other forms. However, snowflakes come in other shapes besides hexagons. For example, there is pentagonal ice. A team of scientists led by the London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) discovered a linear chain built from ice pentagons. The chains were formed on a nanoscale across a flat copper surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to image them. While you shouldn't expect to see pentagonal snowflakes any time soon, the research might be used to find new materials to initiate nucleation of water to form clouds and precipitation and also to better-understand how these processes occur naturally.

What Do Metal Crystals Look Like?

Some of the most beautiful crystals are made entirely of pure metal elements. For example, this dainty crystal is a crystal of pure gold. Metal crystals often have lacy or interesting geometric structures. You can view other types of metal crystals in the Metal Crystal Photo Gallery.

This Day in Science History - March 6 - Joseph von Fraunhofer

March 6th is Joseph von Fraunhofer's birthday. Fraunhofer was a German physicist who discovered thin dark bands while investigating the sun's spectrum. Bunsen and Kirchhoff later discovered that they corresponded to the wavelengths of the absorption of common elements like hydrogen, helium and iron. The energy from the sun would pass through the upper layers of the sun and get absorbed, causing the dark lines. These lines are now known as "Fraunhofer lines" in his honor.

Aurora Borealis in Alaska

I'm in the airport awaiting a flight to Alaska to see the sights and try out some science projects that only work when it's really cold. Of course, at the top of my list of things to do is to watch and photograph the aurora borealis. March is a perfect month to view the lights in Alaska because the nights are still long and often clear and for some reason, the aurora seems to do well close to the equinox. We're also near the peak of the solar cycle, so chances are good I'll enjoy the northern lights.

I'll be posting pictures of my adventures, so stay tuned!

Sunday, March 2, 2014

This Day in Science History - March 2 - Heinrich Olbers

March 2nd marks the passing of Heinrich Olbers. Olbers was a German physician and amateur astronomer who devised a simple method to calculate the orbits of comets and discovered two large asteroids, Vesta and Pallas. He also believed the asteroids were remnants of a wrecked planet that orbited the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.

Olbers is also known for the question "Why is the night sky dark?". If you assume that the universe is infinite and filled with stars, you should see light from stars in all directions and the night sky should be as bright as daylight. As we all know, the night sky dark with many points of light.

This question is known as Olbers' Paradox and had no simple answer. The Big Bang Theory tries to answer the question by stating there is a finite number of stars and the universe is constantly expanding.

1972 - NASA launches the Pioneer 10 space probe.

Pioneer spacecraftNASA
Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to pass through the asteroid belt and take direct observations of the planet Jupiter. It also became the first to leave our solar system.

Make Glowing Hands

Are you seeking a ghostly blue glow, for your hands or other skin? It's easy to get a vivid blue glow using either of two common household chemicals.
 Give your hands or any other skin a ghostly blue glow! It's easy to do.

Glowing Hands - Method #1

Rub petroleum jelly on your hands. They will glow bright blue under a black light. This is a great way to make any skin glow, including skin on your face. Just be sure to avoid getting petroleum jelly in your eyes, since it will sting.

Glowing Hands - Method #2

Rub laundry detergent on your hands. They will glow very bright blue under a black light. It's not actually the detergent that makes your skin fluoresce, so you won't get the same effect from dishwashing detergent or most soaps. The brightening agent added to prevent clothes from appearing dull and gray is the active ingredient. Laundry detergent may irritate your skin, so you may wish to put on plastic gloves before coating your hands with the detergent. Rinse your hands under water when you are done, to remove the detergent.

How to Remove Iodine from Water

Answer: According to Lenntech, a water treatment and purification company, it's easy to remove iodine from water. Simply pass the water over activated carbon. Most water treatment pitchers will remove iodine from water or you can find activated carbon sold by itself.

How Iodine Gets in Water

Iodine occurs naturally in water. It is added to water from volcanic activity, weathering of rocks and waste from medical applications. In some cases it is purposely added to water to disinfect it to make the water safe for human consumption. Radioactive iodine enters water from medical waste and nuclear accidents.

This Day in Science History - March 1 - Discovery of Radioactivity

On March 1, 1896, Antoine Henri Becqurel discovered radioactivity. Earlier in the week he planned an experiment to expose sunlight to uranium and then store the uranium in a black bag with a photographic plate. Earlier trials of the experiment resulted in an image of the uranium crystals on the photograph. He believed uranium absorbed sunlight and released the energy slowly by fluorescence. He planned to repeat his experiment on February 26, but it was cloudy with little sunlight. Becqurel decided to postpone his test and placed his uranium and photographic plate in a black bag and stored it in his desk.

When the weather cleared, he collected his materials to perform his experiment and discovered his photographic plate contained a clear image of the uranium crystals. The uranium did not need an external source to produce the image, but something inside the uranium gave off energy.

This discovery marks the beginning of the nuclear age and would earn Becqurel the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics.

This Day in Science History - February 28 - Dord

Dord is a noun in physics and chemistry that means density. At least, that's what it meant for nearly 5 years. On February 28, 1939, the word 'Dord' was discovered to be an error in the second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary published in 1934. Dord is an example of a ghost word, or a word that was never actually used, but appeared in dictionaries.

The first edition of this dictionary had common abbreviations listed together with words alphabetically. The second edition would move the abbreviations to the back in their own special section. The the card for the abbreviation 'D or d' for density went into the wrong pile and was mistakenly combined into 'Dord'.

This Day in Science History - February 27 - Aspirin

February 27th could be considered aspirin's birthday. The process to make aspirin was patented in 1900 by Felix Hoffman on behalf of the German pharmaceutical company, Bayer. Hoffman's aspirin was a stable form of acetylsalicylic acid and named in three parts for this active ingredient. The 'A' was from acetyl, 'spir' was from the source of slaicin, the spirea plant, and 'in' was tacked on the end to give it a good pharmacological sounding name.

Drinking Bleach and Drug Tests

There are all kinds of rumors about ways you can beat a drug test. Obviously the easiest way to pass the test is to avoid taking drugs in the first place, but that's not going to be much help if you've already taken something and are facing a test. According to Snopes, some people drink bleach believing it will somehow clear their system of drugs. While it is unclear where this idea originated, the rumor is out there. Will it work? Will drinking bleach hurt you or kill you? Here's the lowdown:

Drinking Bleach to Pass a Drug Test

Household bleach consists of about 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in water. Specifically, Clorox says their bleach contains water, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium polyacrylate. They also make scented products that include fragrances. Bleach also contains small amounts of impurities, which aren't a big deal when you're using the product for disinfection or cleaning, but could prove toxic if ingested. None of these ingredients binds to drugs or their metabolites or inactivates them such that you would test negative on a drug test.

Colored Metal Jewels - The Bead Test

Most people have seen colored fire, which can be used as a flame test to help identify the ions in a sample. The bead test is a related qualitative technique that involves heating sample-infused borax, microcosmic salt, or sodium carbonate beads in a flame to produce colored 'jewels' or beads representative of metal ions. You can make blue borax jewels, plus I've got instructions for producing other colors of beads... learn how

How Salt Preserves Food

Before refrigeration became common, salt was a popular food preservative. It is still used in many products, including bacon, ham, pickles, and jerky, but modern versions of these foods actually contain much less salt than the level needed to prevent microbial growth. Seawater tastes salty, yet it is only about 3.5% salt. A 10% salt concentration is needed to prevent bacterial growth and 20% salinity is required to actually kill bacteria and molds. Yet, salt does work as a preservative.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Vanishing Valentine Chemistry Demonstration

Here's a fun chemistry demonstration that's perfect for Valentine's Day or to illustrate an oxidation-reduction reaction. The Vanishing Valentine involves shaking a solution, causing it to turn pink. If the pink Valentine solution is left undisturbed, it will become colorless. The color change cycle can be repeated several times. It is caused by the oxidation and reduction of resazurin. an indicator that is pink or colorless depending on its oxidation state.

Vanishing Valentine Materials

  • 100 ml of a 0.133 M dextrose solution (C6H12O6)
  • 100 ml of a 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH)
  • 1 ml of a 0.1% resazurin solution
  • a 250-ml or 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask or separatory funnel (resembles a heart)
  • stopper for the flask
  • dropper or pipette

Prepare the Solutions

Dextrose Solution: Dissolve 2.4 g of dextrose in distilled or deionized water to make 100 ml of solution. Sodium Hydroxide Solution: Prepare the 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution by dissolving 4.0 g of sodium hydroxide in enough distilled or deionized water to make 100 ml of solution. Add the sodium hydroxide a little at time, stirring constantly. Heat is evolved from this reaction.
Resazurin Solution: Dissolve 0.1 g of resazurin in distilled or deionized water to make 100 ml of solution. The shelf life of resazurin solution is 6-12 months. This solution should be a deep blue color.

This Day in Science History - February 13 - Étienne Geoffroy

February 13th is Étienne François Geoffroy's birthday. Geoffroy was a French physician and chemist who was the first to arrange the known elements into a table based on their chemical affinity to each other.

Anyone who has ever mixed two items together knows some things combine better than others. In chemistry, two different chemical species' affinity is a property that shows how likely a chemical reaction will occur when mixed. Reagents with strong affinity are more likely to react with each other than reagents with little affinity to each other. Geoffroy's table had a series of reagents across the top with other reagents with high affinity with these elements listed below. This table became a standard table for 18th Century chemists until the end of the century when it was shown the amount of a reagent drove the reaction.

How Febreze Works

The other day I got frozen tiny shrimp to feed the jellyfish and pipefish in my aquarium. I used my fingers to drop a pinchful of shrimp into the water, which worked great except I smelled like I just got off a shrimp boat. Soap didn't touch the stink. Neither did stainless steel. So, I decided to Febreze myself. It worked great. Initially I smelled like flowers instead of shrimp, but the floral smell washed off, leaving my hands unscented.
Have you wondered whether Febreze actually removes odors or whether it just covers them with a perfume? Have you wondered how it works? Here's the lowdown on Febreze. It's a product that was invented by Procter & Gamble and introduced in 1996. The active ingredient in Febreze is beta-cyclodextrin, a carbohydrate. Beta-cyclodextrin is an 8-sugar ringed molecule that is formed via an enzymatic conversion of starch. The cyclodextrin molecule sort of resembles a donut. When you spray Febreze, the water in the product partially dissolves the odor, allowing it to form a complex inside the 'hole' of the cyclodextrin donut shape. The stink molecule is still there, but it can't bind to your odor receptors, so you can't smell it. Depending on the type of Febreze you're using, the odor might simply be deactivated or it might be replaced with something nice-smelling, like a fruity or floral fragrance. As Febreze dries, more and more of the odor molecules bind to the cyclodextrin, lowering the concentration of the molecules in air and eliminating the odor. If water is added once again, the odor molecules are released, allowing them to be washed away and truly removed.

Valentine's Day Chemistry

Romance is all about chemistry, right? Valentine's Day is February 14th, so you've still got time to find a great gift for your sweetie and impress him or her with your holiday knowledge. Here's some Valentine's Day chemistry content to help you out:
  • Vanishing Valentine Demo - Make a chemical solution go from blue to pink to clear.
  • Hot and Cold Valentine - A chemical solution goes from colorless to hot pink!
  • Crystal Heart - Grow a crystal heart as a decoration or gift.

Saturday, February 8, 2014

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Wednesday, February 5, 2014

This Day in Science History - February 6 - Joseph Priestley

February 6th marks the passing of Joseph Priestley. Priestley was an English theologian and natural philosopher who is best known with this experimental works with gases or "airs". He was the first to identify several gases including the element oxygen. This discovery helped answer the old question: Why do things burn? The prevailing theory of the time held there was a substance present in all things called phlogiston. Things would burn until they become saturated with phlogiston and any fire would go out. Priestley's found his new air greatly increased the process of burning and called it "dephlogisticated air" since it appeared to contain no phlogiston. Even though his discovery seemed to support the phlogiston theory, it was one of the key elements to launch Lavoisier's chemical reaction theories that started the Chemical revolution of the 19th Century.

Priestley began his work with gases with a ready supply of phlogistated air, or carbon dioxide. He obtained near limitless supplies from a brewery near his ministry. One of the most notable achievements from this was a process to easily create carbonated water.

How To Calculate Atomic Mass

One common chemistry homework assignment is finding atomic mass. The atomic mass is the sum of the masses of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom, but the electrons have so much less mass than the protons and neutrons that they are left out of the calculations. Atomic mass thus becomes the sum of the mass of an atom's protons and neutrons.

It's not difficult to find atomic mass, but there are three types of problems you may be asked to perform, depending how advanced your class is. Here's a look at how to find atomic mass, no matter how the problem is presented.

Make Your Own Yogurt

Most chemistry projects are not edible. However, there is a great deal of chemistry in the food we eat. For example, beer, wine, cheese, and yogurt all require chemical reactions to turn one edible product into another. Making yogurt is a great project for all age groups, plus it's easy to work into lessons about proteins, pH, and fermentation. Even if you don't care about chemistry, it's worthwhile to learn to make your own yogurt. It's easy to do and results in a healthy, natural food that contains a lot of nutrients and probiotics

Ice on Fire Chemistry Demonstration

Set real water ice on real fire by applying a simple chemical reaction. Okay, really the fire is burning between the ice cubes, but the effect makes it look like the ice itself is on fire... here's what to do.

Grow Glowing Crystals

It's as easy to grow glowing crystals as it is normal crystals. You have a few options:
  1. Add glowing craft paint or glue to the crystal solution. The crystals may or may not incorporate the chemical into their matrix, but when you pull the crystals out of the solution, some of the glowing chemical will remain on the exterior, causing your crystals to glow.
  2. Make regular clear crystals appear to glow by growing them on a glowing base or substrate. For example, you can make a glowing crystal geode by painting the inside of an eggshell or plaster mold with glowing paint and growing clear or pale-colored crystals inside the glowing base.
  3. Make crystals that glow when exposed to black light by mixing yellow highlighter ink into the crystal growing solution. These crystals will glow under ultraviolet (black) light. Also, regular glowing crystals will glow more brightly under black light. Some natural crystals glow under ultraviolet light, without adding any chemicals.

নেপালের প্রধানমন্ত্রী খাদগা প্রসাদ শর্মাকে ফোন দিয়েছেন প্রধানমন্ত্রী শেখ হাসিনা

নেপালে বিমান বিধ্বস্ত হওয়ার ঘটনায় দেশটির প্রধানমন্ত্রী খাদগা প্রসাদ শর্মাকে ফোন দিয়েছেন প্রধানমন্ত্রী শেখ হাসিনা। নেপালের প্রধানমন্ত্রী গ...

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