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Friday, October 10, 2014

Acid and base information

Acidic,Basic and Neutral Substances

Acidic substances
Materials that contain an acid in them are called acidic substances.
Acids are of 2 types-
•Mineral Acid
•Organic Acid
Mineral Acid
A mineral acid is an acid derived from on or more inorganic compounds.They are not Organic.
Examples are-Sulphuric Acid,Nitric Acid.

Organic Acid
They occur naturally in animal and plant materials
Ex: Tartaric Acid from Grapes,Lactic acid from milk.

Characteristics of Acidic Substances are-
•They have a sour taste and are corrosive
•They are soluble in water
Acids can also be either dilute or concentrated.
Acids with more amount of water are called dilute acids.Acids with less amount of water are called concentrated acids.
Acids can also be either strong or weak.
Strong acids are highly corrosive and can cause burns.Ex:Nitric,Sulphuric Acid
Weak acids are not so destructive.

Basic Substances
Substances that contain a base are called basic substances.
Examples are Sodium Hydroxide,Calcium Hydroxide

Bases have many properties-
•They are bitter to taste
•Solutions of bases have a soapy touch
•They may or may not be soluble in water.
Bases that are soluble in water are called Alkalis.
Ex:Potassium Hydroxide,Sodium Hydroxide.

Bases can also be strong or weak
Strong bases are corrosive and can burn skin
Examples:Sodium Hydroxide

Examples of weak bases are Copper Hydroxide,Zinc Hydroxide

Neutral Substances
Some substances are neither Acidic nor Basic.These are called Neutral Substance.
When an acid reacts with a base,Neutralization reaction takes place and a Neutral Salt is formed.Here is an example of a neutralization reaction.

In this reaction Hydrochloric Acid reacts with Sodium Hydroxide to from Sodium Chloride(Common Salt) and Water.

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